Welcome to Nanjing Center for Ocean-Atmosphere Dynamical Studies!

Nanjing Center for Ocean-Atmosphere Dynamical Studies

Recent Publications

Recent refereed publications


Guo, Z., and X. S. Liang, 2022: Nexus of ambient flow and squall line via turbulence in the March 2018 meso-scale convective system over Southeast China. Atmospheric Research, 277, 106287, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2022.106287. [pdf]

Docquier, D., S. Vannitsem, F. Ragone, K. Wyser, and X. San. Liang, 2022: Causal Links Between Arctic Sea Ice and Its Potential Drivers Based on the Rate of Information Transfer. Geophysical Research Letters, 49, e2021GL095892, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL095892. [pdf]

Vannitsem, S., and X. San. Liang, 2022: Dynamical dependencies at monthly and interannual time scales in the Climate system: Study of the North Pacific and Atlantic regions. Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 74, https://doi.org/10.16993/tellusa.44. [pdf]

Wang, S. W., Y. Yang, X. San. Liang, Y. Zhao, and C. Wang, Distinctly different seasonal eddy kinetic energy variations and their mechanisms in the upstream and downstream Kuroshio within the East China Sea sector (in Chinese). Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 53, 278–294, https://doi.org/10.11693/hyhz20211000236. [pdf]

Rong, Y. N., and X. San. Liang, 2022: An information flow-based sea surface height reconstruction through machine learning. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 1–1, https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2022.3140398. [pdf]

Zhang, Z., and X. San. Liang, 2022: Multiscale Interactive Processes Underlying the Heavy Rainstorm Associated with a Landfalling Atmospheric River. Atmosphere, 13, 29, https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010029. [pdf]

X. San Liang, 2022: The Causal Interaction between Complex Subsystems. Entropy, 24, 3, https://doi.org/10.3390/e24010003. [pdf]


Zhang, Y. C., and X. San. Liang, 2021: The causal role of South China Sea on the Pacific–North American teleconnection pattern. Clim Dyn, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-021-06070-7. [pdf]

Zhao, Y. H., Y. Yang, X. San Liang, and Y. Zhang, 2021: Different mechanisms for the seasonal variations of the mesoscale eddy energy in the South China Sea. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 103677, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2021.103677. [pdf]

X. San Liang, 2021. Measuring the importance of individual units in producing the collective behavior of a complex network. Chaos 31, 093123. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0055051. [pdf]

X. San Liang, Xu, F., Rong, Y., Zhang, R., Tang, X., Zhang, F., 2021. El Niño Modoki can be mostly predicted more than 10 years ahead of time. Sci Rep 11, 17860. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97111-y. [pdf]

Yang, Y., X. San. Liang, and H. Sasaki, 2021: Vertical coupling and dynamical source for the intraseasonal variability in the deep Kuroshio Extension. Ocean Dynamics, 71, 1069–1086, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-021-01482-9. [pdf]

Xu, F., and X. San Liang, 2021: Drastic change in dynamics as Typhoon Lekima experiences an eyewall replacement cycle. Front. Earth Sci., https://doi.org/10.1007/s11707-020-0865-6. [pdf]

Rong, Y. N., J. Ma, Y. Li, X. San Liang, 2021: On the Multiscale Dynamics of A Top-Down Developing Vortex over Tibet Plateau (in Chinese). Advances in Meteorological Science and Technology. 10.3969/j.issn.2095-1973.2021.01.003. [pdf]

Quan, Qi & Liu, Zhiqiang & Sun, Shantong & Cai, Zhongya & Yang, Yang & Jin, Guangzhen & X. San Liang (2021). Influence of the Kuroshio Intrusion on Deep Flow Intraseasonal Variability in the Northern South China Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 10.1029/2021JC017429. [pdf]

X. San Liang (2021). Normalized Multivariate Time Series Causality Analysis and Causal Graph Reconstruction.

Entropy. 23. 679. 10.3390/e23060679. [pdf]

Rong, Y. N. and X. San Liang. 2021. Panel data causal inference using a rigorous information flow analysis for homogeneous, independent and identically distributed datasets. IEEE Access. PP. 1-1. 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.306827. [pdf]

X. San Liang and Yang, Xiu-Qun. 2021. A Note on Causation Versus Correlation in an Extreme Situation. Entropy. 23. 316. 10.3390/e23030316. [pdf]

Yang, Yang, McWilliams, James, X. San Liang, Zhang, Hong, Weisberg, Robert, Liu, Yonggang and Menemenlis, Dimitris. 2021. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of the Submesoscale Energetics in the Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 51. 475–489. 10.1175/JPO-D-20-0247.1. [pdf]

X. San Liang and Hu, Jianyu. 2021. Absolute instabilities in the spatially developing Kuroshio Extension. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans. 93. 10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2021.101205. [pdf]

Yang, Y. L., Y. Zhang, X. San. Liang, Q. Cheng, and J. Y. Tsou, 2021: Evolution of Arctic Ocean surface circulation from 1958 to 2017. Global and Planetary Change, 206, 103638, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2021.103638. [pdf]

Tao, L., X. San Liang, L. Cai, J. Zhao, and M. Zhang, 2021: Relative contributions of global warming, AMO and IPO to the land precipitation variabilities since 1930s. Clim Dyn, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-020-05584-w. [pdf]


Xunfa Lu, Kai Liu, X. San Liang, Zhengjun Zhang, and Hairong Cui, 2020:The Break Point-Dependent Causality between the Cryptocurrency and Emerging Stock Markets. Economic Computation and Economic Cybernetics Studies and Research, DOI: 10.24818/18423264/ [pdf]

Xu F., and X. San Liang, 2020: The synchronization between the zonal jet stream and temperature anomalies leads to an extremely freezing North America in January 2019. Geophysical Research Letters, DOI: 10.1029/2020GL089689. [pdf]

Xiao, H., F. Zhang, L. Miao, X. San Liang, K. Wu, and R. Liu, 2020: Long-term trends in Arctic surface temperature and potential causality over the last 100 years. Climate Dynamics, 55, 1443–1456, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-020-05330-2. [pdf]

Vaid, B. H., and X. San Liang, 2020: Effect of Upper Tropospheric Vertical Thermal Contrast Over the Mediterranean Region on Convection over the Western Tibetan Plateau during ENSO Years. Atmosphere-Ocean, 58, 98–109, https://doi.org/10.1080/07055900.2020.1751048. [pdf]

Yang, Y., R. H. Weisberg, Y. Liu, and X. San Liang, 2020: Instabilities and Multiscale Interactions Underlying the Loop Current Eddy Shedding in the Gulf of Mexico. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 50, 1289–1317, https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-19-0202.1. [pdf]

Li G., Ma J. W., and X. San Liang. 2020: A study of the multiscale dynamical processes underlying the blocking high that caused the January 2008 freezing rain and snow storm in southern China (in Chinese). Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 78(1): 18-32. [pdf]

Xu F., and X. San Liang. 2020: The local Lorenz cycle underlying a typical stratospheric sudden warming[J]. Trans Atmos Sci, 43(2):336346.doi:10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20170601001.(in Chinese). [pdf]

Ma J. W., X. San Liang. 2020: on the formation of the upper cold center of the Atlantic blockings[J]. Trans Atmos Sci. 43(3):469-480.doi:10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20170601002.(in Chinese). [pdf]


Ji, C., Y. Zhang, Q. Cheng, Y. Li, T. Jiang, and X. San Liang, 2019: Analyzing the variation of the precipitation of coastal areas of eastern China and its association with sea surface temperature (SST) of other seas. Atmospheric Research, 219, 114122, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2018.12.027. [pdf]

X. San Liang, 2019: A Study of the Cross-Scale Causation and Information Flow in a Stormy Model Mid-Latitude Atmosphere. Entropy, 21, 149, https://doi.org/10.3390/e21020149. [pdf]

Tawia Hagan, D. F., G. Wang, X. San Liang, and H. A. J. Dolman, 2019: A Time-Varying Causality Formalism Based on the LiangKleeman Information Flow for Analyzing Directed Interactions in Nonstationary Climate Systems. J. Climate, 32, 75217537, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0881.1. [pdf]

Vaid, B. H., and X. San Liang, 2019: The Out-of-Phase Variation in Vertical Thermal Contrast Over the Western and Eastern Sides of the Northern Tibetan Plateau. Pure Appl. Geophys., https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-019-02268-3. [pdf]

Yang, Y., and X. San Liang, 2019: Spatiotemporal Variability of the Global Ocean Internal Processes Inferred from Satellite Observations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 49, 21472164, https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-18-0273.1. [pdf]

Yang, Y., and X. San Liang, 2019: New Perspectives on the Generation and Maintenance of the Kuroshio Large Meander. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 49, 20952113, https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-18-0276.1. [pdf]

Yang, Y., and X. San Liang, 2019: The intrinsic nonlinear multiscale interactions among the mean flow, low frequency variability and mesoscale eddies in the Kuroshio region. Sci. China Earth Sci., 62, 595608, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-018-9289-4. [pdf]

Zhao, Y. B., and X. San Liang, 2019: Charneys Modelthe Renowned Prototype of Baroclinic InstabilityIs Barotropically Unstable As Well. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 36, 733752, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-019-8189-8. [pdf]

Zhao Y. B., and X. San Liang, 2019: Causes and underlying dynamic processes of the mid-winter suppression in the North Pacific storm track. Sci. China Earth Sci., 62, 872–890, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-018-9310-5. [pdf]

Zhao Y. B., and X. San Liang, Z. Guan, and K. I. Hodges, 2019: The asymmetric eddy–background flow interaction in the North Pacific storm track. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 145, 575–596, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.3453. [pdf]


Hu, J., X. San Liang, and H. Lin, 2018: Coastal Upwelling Off the China Coasts. Coastal Environment, Disaster, and Infrastructure - A Case Study of China’s Coastline, X.S. Liang and Y. Zhang, Eds., InTech. [pdf]

Ji, C., Y. Zhang, Q. Cheng, Y. Li, T. Jiang, and X. San Liang, 2018: On the relationship between the early spring Indian Ocean’s sea surface temperature (SST) and the Tibetan Plateau atmospheric heat source in summer. Global and Planetary Change, 164, 1–10, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2018.02.011. [pdf]

Ji, C., Y. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Tsou, T. Jiang, and X. San Liang, 2018: Evaluating the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) on spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a concentration in the East China Sea. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 68, 252–261, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2018.01.020. [pdf]

X. San Liang, 2018: Causation and information flow with respect to relative entropy. Chaos, 28, 075311, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5010253. [pdf]

X. San Liang, 2018: The Slow Coastal-Trapped Waves off Subei Bank in the Yellow Sea and Their Climatic Change in the Past Decades. Coastal Environment, Disaster, and Infrastructure - A Case Study of China’s Coastline, X.S. Liang and Y. Zhang, Eds., InTech. [pdf]

X. San Liang, and Rong Y. N., 2018: Nuclear Pollution in the East China Sea from the Fukushima Disaster. Coastal Environment, Disaster, and Infrastructure - A Case Study of China’s Coastline, X.S. Liang and Y. Zhang, Eds., InTech. [pdf]

X. San Liang, and Wang L., 2018: The Cyclogenesis and Decay of Typhoon Damrey. Coastal Environment, Disaster, and Infrastructure - A Case Study of China’s Coastline, X.S. Liang and Y. Zhang, Eds., InTech. [pdf]

X. San Liang, M. Huang, H. Wu, and Y. Wang, 2018: The Yellow Sea Surface Cold Patches in Warm Seasons. Coastal Environment, Disaster, and Infrastructure - A Case Study of China’s Coastline, X.S. Liang and Y. Zhang, Eds., InTech. [pdf]

X. San Liang, Y. Zhang, C. Dong, and X. Wang, 2018: Preface: Coastal-Ocean Issues and Inland Water Pollution Effects on Environmental Change. Atmosphere-Ocean, 56, 197–198, https://doi.org/10.1080/07055900.2018.1511272. [pdf]

Rong, Y. N., and X. San Liang, 2018: A Study of the Impact of the Fukushima Nuclear Leak on East China Coastal Regions. Atmosphere-Ocean, 56, 254–267, https://doi.org/10.1080/07055900.2017.1421139. [pdf]

Vaid, B. H., and X. San Liang, 2018: The changing relationship between the convection over the western Tibetan Plateau and the sea surface temperature in the northern Bay of Bengal. Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 70, 1440869, https://doi.org/10.1080/16000870.2018.1440869. [pdf]

Vaid, B. H., and X. San Liang, 2018: An Abrupt Change in Tropospheric Temperature Gradient and Moisture Transport Over East Asia in the Late 1990s. Atmosphere-Ocean, 56, 268–276, https://doi.org/10.1080/07055900.2018.1429381. [pdf]

Vaid, B. H., and X. San Liang, 2019: Influence of tropospheric temperature gradient on the boreal wintertime precipitation over East Asia. Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci., 30, 161–170, https://doi.org/10.3319/TAO.2018.10.24.01. [pdf]

Wang J., M. Li, X. San Liang, X. Wang, F. Xue, M. Peng, and C. Miao, 2018: Regional Characteristics of Typhoon-Induced Ocean Eddies in the East China Sea. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 35, 826–838, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-017-7173-4. [pdf]

Yang, Y., and X. San Liang, 2018: On the Seasonal Eddy Variability in the Kuroshio Extension. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 48, 1675–1689, https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-18-0058.1. [pdf]

Zhang, Y., H. Duan, H. Xi, Z. Huang, J. Tsou, T. Jiang, and X. San Liang, 2018: Evaluation of the Influence of Aquatic Plants and Lake Bottom on the Remote-Sensing Reflectance of Optically Shallow Waters. Atmosphere-Ocean, 56, 277–288, https://doi.org/10.1080/07055900.2018.1454295. [pdf]

Zhang, Y., M. Hallikainen, H. Zhang, H. Duan, Y. Li, and X. San Liang, 2018: Chlorophyll-a Estimation in Turbid Waters Using Combined SAR Data With Hyperspectral Reflectance Data: A Case Study in Lake Taihu, China. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 11, 1325–1336, https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTARS.2017.2789247. [pdf]

Zhang, Y., Z. Huang, D. Fu, J. Y. Tsou, T. Jiang, X. San Liang, and X. Lu, 2018: Monitoring of chlorophyll-a and sea surface silicate concentrations in the south part of Cheju island in the East China sea using MODIS data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 67, 173–178, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2018.01.017. [pdf]

Zhao Y. B., X. San Liang, and W. Zhu, 2018: Differences in storm structure and internal dynamics of the two storm source regions over East Asia. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, https://doi.org/10.11676/qxxb2018.033.(in Chinese). [pdf]

Zhao Y. B., and X. San Liang, 2018: On the Inverse Relationship between the Boreal Wintertime Pacific Jet Strength and Storm-Track Intensity. J. Climate, 31, 9545–9564, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0043.1. [pdf]

Bai, C., R. Zhang, S. Bao, X. San Liang, and W. Guo, 2018: Forecasting the Tropical Cyclone Genesis over the Northwest Pacific through Identifying the Causal Factors in Cyclone–Climate Interactions. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 35, 247–259, https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-17-0109.1. [pdf]


Cai, J., Y. Zhang, Y. Li, X. San Liang, and T. Jiang, 2017: Analyzing the Characteristics of Soil Moisture Using GLDAS Data: A Case Study in Eastern China. Applied Sciences, 7, 566, https://doi.org/10.3390/app7060566. [pdf]

Huang M. H., X. San Liang, H. Wu, and Y. Wang, 2018: Different Generating Mechanisms for the Summer Surface Cold Patches in the Yellow Sea. Atmosphere-Ocean, 56, 199–211, https://doi.org/10.1080/07055900.2017.1371580. [pdf]

Lu H. C., X. San Liang, and Rong Y. N., 2017: An energetic study of the boreal summer western Pacific MJO with the localized multi-scale energy and vorticity analysis(MS-EVA). Transactions of Atmospheric Sciences,.(in chinese). [pdf]

X. San Liang, 2017: The Seasonally Varying Monsoon Wind May Suppress the Western Boundary Current in the South China Sea. Fisheries and Oceanography, 3, 555601, https://doi.org/10.19080/OFOAJ.2017.03.555601. [pdf]

Ma J. W., and X. San Liang, 2017: Multiscale Dynamical Processes Underlying the Wintertime Atlantic Blockings. J. Atmos. Sci., 74, 3815–3831, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-16-0295.1. [pdf]

Wang L., and X. San Liang, 2017: A Diagnosis of Some Dynamical Processes Underlying a Higher-Latitude Typhoon Using the Multiscale Window Transform. Atmosphere, 8, 118, https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos8070118. [pdf]

Xu F., and X. San Liang, 2017: On the Generation and Maintenance of the 2012/13 Sudden Stratospheric Warming. J. Atmos. Sci., 74, 3209–3228, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-17-0002.1. [pdf]

Yang, Y., X. San Liang, B. Qiu, and S. Chen, 2017: On the Decadal Variability of the Eddy Kinetic Energy in the Kuroshio Extension. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 47, 1169–1187, https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-16-0201.1. [pdf]

You, J. H., and X. San Liang, 2017: Reconstructing the MJO with multiscale window transform. Transactions of Atmospheric Sciences,.(in chinese). [pdf]

Zhang, Y., Y. Li, X. San Liang, and J. Tsou, 2017: Comparison of Oil Spill Classifications Using Fully and Compact Polarimetric SAR Images. Applied Sciences, 7, 193, https://doi.org/10.3390/app7020193. [pdf]


X. San Liang, 2016: Information flow and causality as rigorous notions ab initio. Phys. Rev. E, 94, 052201, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.94.052201. [pdf]

X. San Liang, 2016: Canonical Transfer and Multiscale Energetics for Primitive and Quasigeostrophic Atmospheres. J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 4439–4468, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-16-0131.1. [pdf]

X. San Liang, 2016: Exploring the Big Data Using a Rigorous and Quantitative Causality Analysis. Journal of Computer and Communications, 04, 53, https://doi.org/10.4236/jcc.2016.45008. [pdf]

X. San Liang, and A. Lozano-Durán, 2016: A preliminary study of the causal structure in fully developed near-wall turbulence. Proceedings of the Summer Program 2016. [pdf]

Rong, Y. N., Xu R., X. San Liang, and Zhao Y.B., 2016: A study of the possible radioactive contamination in the China Seas from the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, https://doi.org/10.13671/j.hjkxxb.2016.0086.(in chinese) [pdf]

Stips, A., D. Macias, C. Coughlan, E. Garcia-Gorriz, and X. San Liang, 2016: On the causal structure between CO2 and global temperature. Scientific Reports, 6, 21691, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep21691. [pdf]

Yang, Y., and X. San Liang, 2016: The Instabilities and Multiscale Energetics Underlying the Mean–Interannual–Eddy Interactions in the Kuroshio Extension Region. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 46, 1477–1494, https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-15-0226.1. [pdf]

Zhao Y. B., X. San Liang, and J. Gan, 2016: Nonlinear multiscale interactions and internal dynamics underlying a typical eddy-shedding event at Luzon Strait. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 121, 8208–8229, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JC012483. [pdf]

Selected Publications before 2015

X. San Liang, 2015: Normalizing the causality between time series. Phys. Rev. E, 92, 022126, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.92.022126. [pdf]

Vaid, B. H., and X. San Liang, 2015: Tropospheric temperature gradient and its relation to the South and East Asian precipitation variability. Meteorol Atmos Phys, 127, 579–585, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00703-015-0385-1. [pdf]

X. San Liang, 2014: Unraveling the cause-effect relation between time series. Phys. Rev. E, 90, 052150, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052150. [pdf]

X. San Liang, 2014: Entropy Evolution and Uncertainty Estimation with Dynamical Systems. Entropy, 16, 3605–3634, https://doi.org/10.3390/e16073605. [pdf]

X. San Liang, 2013: Local predictability and information flow in complex dynamical systems. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, 248, 1–15, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physd.2012.12.011. [pdf]

X. San Liang, 2013: The Liang-Kleeman Information Flow: Theory and Applications. Entropy, 15, 327–360, https://doi.org/10.3390/e15010327. [pdf]

X. San Liang, and A. R. Robinson, 2013: Absolute and convective instabilities and their roles in the forecasting of large frontal meanderings. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118, 5686–5702, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrc.20406.[pdf]

X. San Liang, 2012: Multiscale Window Interaction and Localized Nonlinear Hydrodynamic Stability Analysis. Advanced Fluid Dynamics, InTech, 159–182. [pdf]

X. San Liang, 2011: Uncertainty generation in deterministic flows: Theory and application with an atmospheric jet stream model. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, 52, 51–79, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2011.03.003. [pdf]

X. San Liang, 2010: Information Flow and Causality Quantification in Discrete and Continuous Stochastic Systems. Stochastic Control, InTech, 229–352. [pdf]

Haley, P.J., P.F.J. Lermusiaux, A.R. Robinson, W.G. Leslie, O. Logoutov, G. Cossarini, X. San Liang, P. Moreno, S.R. Ramp, J.D. Doyle, J. Bellingham, F. Chavez, S. Johnston, 2009: Forecasting and reanalysis in the Monterey Bay/California Current region for the Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network-II experiment. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 56, 127–148, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.08.010.[pdf]

Ramp, S.R., R.E. Davis, N.E. Leonard, I. Shulman, Y. Chao,  A.R. Robinson, J. Marsden, P. Lermusiaux, D. Fratantoni, J.D. Paduan, F. Chavez, F.L. Bahr, X. San Liang, W. Leslie, and Z. Li, 2009: Preparing to predict: The Second Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN-II) experiment in the Monterey Bay. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 56, 68–86, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.08.013. [pdf]

X. San Liang, 2008: Information flow within stochastic dynamical systems. Phys. Rev. E, 78, 031113, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.78.031113. [pdf]

X. San Liang, 2008: A generic approach to the dynamical interpretation of ocean-atmosphere processes. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 27, 74–92. [pdf]

X. San Liang, and A. R. Robinson, 2009: Multiscale Processes and Nonlinear Dynamics of the Circulation and Upwelling Events off Monterey Bay. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 39, 290–313, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JPO3950.1. [pdf]

X. San Liang, and D. G. M. Anderson, 2007: Multiscale Window Transform. Multiscale Model. Simul., 6, 437–467, https://doi.org/10.1137/06066895X. [pdf]

X. San Liang, and R. Kleeman, 2007: A rigorous formalism of information transfer between dynamical system components. I. Discrete mapping. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, 231, 1–9, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physd.2007.04.002. [pdf]

X. San Liang, and R. Kleeman, 2007: A rigorous formalism of information transfer between dynamical system components. II. Continuous flow. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, 227, 173–182, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physd.2006.12.012. [pdf]

X. San Liang, and A. R. Robinson, 2007: Localized multi-scale energy and vorticity analysis: II. Finite-amplitude instability theory and validation. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, 44, 51–76, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2007.04.001. [pdf]

Liu, Y., X. San Liang, and R. H. Weisberg, 2007: Rectification of the Bias in the Wavelet Power Spectrum. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 24, 2093–2102, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JTECHO511.1. [pdf]

X. San Liang, and R. Kleeman, 2005: Information Transfer between Dynamical System Components. Phys. Rev. Lett., 95, 244101, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.244101. [pdf]

X. San Liang, and A. R. Robinson, 2005: Localized multiscale energy and vorticity analysis: I. Fundamentals. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, 38, 195–230, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2004.12.004. [pdf]

X. San Liang, and A. R. Robinson, 2004: A study of the Iceland-Faeroe frontal variability using the multiscale energy and vorticity analysis. Journal of physical oceanography, 34, 2571–2591. [pdf]

X. San Liang, and M. Wang, 2004: A study of turbulent wake dynamics using a novel localized stability analysis. Proceedings of the Biennial CTR Program, Stanford-NASA Ames, 211–220. [pdf]

X. San Liang, and Thomas Carter, 2004: Money distribution in a simple economy. Inter Journal Complex Systems, CX4, 1117. [pdf]